Plywood grading rules differ according to the country of origin. Most popular standard is the British Standard (BS) and American Standard (ASTM). The normal grading system uses the letters A, B, C & D, where A is the best quality, with virtually no blemishes and very well sanded. Grade D typically contains up to the maximum number of blemishes allowed. The letter grades typically come in pairs, where one letter refers to the "better" side, called the face, and the other letter to the back side, opposite the face. Russian (Baltic) plywood is generally manufactured according to GOST 3916.1-96. In this standard plywood is divided into 5 grades: E, I, II, III, IV. Grade correspondence applicable to Russian plywood: I = B, II = BB, III = CP, IV = C. E grade means Elite
The biggest difference between interior and exterior plywood is the method of construction. Both are comprised of three or more layers that are glued to each other. Either may be made of hardwood or soft, which refers to the type of tree it comes from, not the hardness of the wood. However, in interior plywood, water will cause the glue bonding the layers to come apart, which is called delamination. In contrast, exterior plywood uses glue that passes the boil test-immersion in boiling water for 24 to 72 hours without delamination
"MR" is the acronym of "Moisture Resistant". MR glued plywood means plywood resistant to moisture . The meaning of "MR" is different from that of "melamine" and "phenolic". "Melamine " or "phenolic" is the name of a specific glue . But like the word "WBP", " MR " is only a kind of property/feature of glue used in plywood production
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote environmentally sound, socially beneficial and economically prosperous management of the world's forests. Advantages of FSC-certified products are: Credibility (Anyone committed to responsible forest management can become a member of FSC); Environmental Protection (FSC's forest management standards expand protection of water quality, prohibit harvest of rare old-growth forest, prevent loss of natural forest cover and prohibit highly hazardous chemicals); Community Engagement (FSC requires forest managers to engage local community members and to protect customary rights of indigenous people); Access to Markets (Many major companies have policies that state a preference for FSC-certified products)
The EU's "Generalised Scheme of Preferences" (GSP) allows developing country exporters to pay less or no duties on their exports to the EU. This gives them vital access to EU markets and contributes to their economic growth. Specifically, it's a system of exemption from the most favored nation principle (MFN) that obliges WTO member countries to treat the imports of all other WTO member countries no worse than they treat the imports of their "most favored" trading partner. In essence, MFN requires WTO member countries to treat imports coming from all other WTO member countries equally, that is, by imposing equal tariffs on them, etc.
On 1 January 2014, the new GSP preferences under EU Regulation 978/2012 started to apply. More than 80 countries and territories (including 20 high or upper middle income countries) will no longer be beneficiaries of the EU Generalized Scheme of Preferences (GPS). As a result, products originating in these 20 high or upper middle income countries will no longer benefit from a preferential trade scheme upon importation into the EU. As the list of removed countries contains some major economies, products originating in these countries will be impacted by the new regime. Companies should assess the impact on their business and explore the available options to mitigate the financial impact of the new GSP rules.
Products originating in the following countries will no longer benefit from the GSP regime as from 1 January 2014:
• Saudi Arabia
• Macau (territory)
• United Arab Emirates
In addition, for two additional countries (Iran and Azerbaijan) the GSP regime will also be suspended as from 22 February 2014. For several other countries the preference status will be retained, but as from 1 January 2014 the GSP preferential rates will be suspended for certain well defined product categories.
Dangerous goods transport is subject to specific regulations, which have been internationally established. The knowledge of the product and of its transport mode is mandatory for a management which wants to be in compliance with such regulations in the classification, the packaging, the marking and labelling of the material itself, in order to grant its safe delivery to destination. There is a wide range of packaging which is suitable to the dangerous goods transportation, UN approved for all transport modes based on the single business needs: UN approved fiberboard boxes and plywood boxes, certified fiberboard boxes for lithium batteries, overpacks, packagings for infectious and biological substances, temperature controlled transport, absorbent material and certified polyethylene bags. Furthermore, there should be necessary documentation to effectuate a transport complying with the regulations and hazardous labels and panels, which differ based on the class and the general nature of the hazard of the product itself
CARB (California Air Resources Board) is a department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency. The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality, protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations